A workaround for a record.property getter bug in the Delphi XE2 compiler

We recently ran into a nasty little bug in the Delphi XE2 compiler, that arises with a complex set of conditions:

  1. A record with a string property that has a get function;
  2. A call to this getter that has a constant string appended to the result;
  3. This result passed directly to another arbitrary function.

When these conditions are met (see code below for examples), the compiler generates code that crashes.

Reproducing the bug

The following program is enough to reproduce the bug.

program ustrcatbug;

type
  TWrappedString = record
  private
    FValue: string;
    function GetValue: string;
  public
    property Value: string read GetValue;
  end;

{ TWrappedString }

function TWrappedString.GetValue: string;
begin
  Result := FValue;
end;

function GetWrappedString: TWrappedString;
begin
  Result.FValue := 'Something';
end;

begin
  writeln(GetWrappedString.Value + ' Else');
end.

Looking at the last line of code from that sample in the disassembler, we see the following code:

ustrcatbug.dpr.28: writeln(GetWrappedString.Value + ' Else');
0040712A 8D45EC           lea eax,[ebp-$14]
0040712D E816E9FFFF       call GetWrappedString
00407132 8D55EC           lea edx,[ebp-$14]
00407135 B8C0BB4000       mov eax,$0040bbc0
0040713A 8B0DE8594000     mov ecx,[$004059e8]
00407140 E883D8FFFF       call @CopyRecord
00407145 8D55E8           lea edx,[ebp-$18]
00407148 B8C0BB4000       mov eax,$0040bbc0
0040714D E8D6E8FFFF       call TWrappedString.GetValue
00407152 8D45E8           lea eax,[ebp-$18]
00407155 BAB4714000       mov edx,$004071b4
0040715A E899D6FFFF       call @UStrCat
0040715F 8B10             mov edx,[eax]
00407161 A12C884000       mov eax,[$0040882c]
00407166 E86DC6FFFF       call @Write0UString
0040716B E868C7FFFF       call @WriteLn
00407170 E867BCFFFF       call @_IOTest
ustrcatbug.dpr.29: end.
00407175 33C0             xor eax,eax

The problem arises with these two lines:

0040715A E899D6FFFF       call @UStrCat
0040715F 8B10             mov edx,[eax]

The problem is that eax is not preserved through function calls with Delphi’s default register calling convention. And, as _UStrCat is a procedure, we can make no assumptions about the return value (which is passed in eax):

procedure _UStrCat(var Dest: UnicodeString; const Source: UnicodeString);

The issue does not arise if we avoid using the property:

  writeln(GetWrappedString.GetValue + ' Else');

From this, the compiler generates:

ustrcatbug.dpr.28: writeln(GetWrappedString.GetValue + ' Else');
0040712A 8D45E8           lea eax,[ebp-$18]
0040712D E816E9FFFF       call GetWrappedString
00407132 8D55E8           lea edx,[ebp-$18]
00407135 B8C0BB4000       mov eax,$0040bbc0
0040713A 8B0DE8594000     mov ecx,[$004059e8]
00407140 E883D8FFFF       call @CopyRecord
00407145 B8C0BB4000       mov eax,$0040bbc0
0040714A 8D55EC           lea edx,[ebp-$14]
0040714D E8D6E8FFFF       call TWrappedString.GetValue
00407152 8D45EC           lea eax,[ebp-$14]
00407155 BAB4714000       mov edx,$004071b4
0040715A E899D6FFFF       call @UStrCat
0040715F 8B55EC           mov edx,[ebp-$14]
00407162 A12C884000       mov eax,[$0040882c]
00407167 E86CC6FFFF       call @Write0UString
0040716C E867C7FFFF       call @WriteLn
00407171 E866BCFFFF       call @_IOTest
ustrcatbug.dpr.29: end.
00407176 33C0             xor eax,eax

Where we now see that edx is reloaded from the stack, as it should be:

0040715A E899D6FFFF       call @UStrCat
0040715F 8B55EC           mov edx,[ebp-$14]

Workarounds

There are a number of possible workarounds:

  1. Upgrade to Delphi XE7 – this problem appears to be resolved, though I could not find a QC or RSP report relating to the bug when I searched. Moving to XE7 is not an option for us in the short term: too many code changes, too many unknowns.
  2. Don’t use properties in records. This means changing code to call functions instead: no big deal for the Get, but annoying for the Set half of the function pair.
  3. Patch around the problem by modifying UStrCat to return the address of the Dest parameter.

In the end, I wrote option (3) but we went with option (2) in our code base.

Because UStrCat is implemented in System.pas, it’s difficult to build your own version of the unit. One way to skin the option 3 UStrCat is to copy the implementation of UStrCat and its dependencies (a bunch of memory and string manipulation functions), and monkeypatch at runtime.

In the copied functions, we need to preserve eax through the function calls. This results in the addition of 4 lines of assembly to the UStrCat and UStrAsg functions, pushing the eax register onto the stack and popping it before exit. I haven’t reproduced the code here because the original is copyrighted to Embarcadero, but here are the changes required:

  1. In UStrCat, Add push eax just after the conditional jump to UStrAsg, and pop eax just before the ret instruction.
  2. In UStrAsg, wrap the call to FreeMem with a push eax and pop eax.

The patch function is also pretty straightforward:

procedure MonkeyPatch(OldProc, NewProc: PBYTE);
var
  pBase, p: PBYTE;
  oldProtect: Cardinal;
begin
  p := OldProc;
  pBase := p;

  // Allow writes to this small bit of the code section
  VirtualProtect(pBase, 5, PAGE_EXECUTE_WRITECOPY, oldProtect);

  // First write the long jmp instruction.
  p := pBase;
  p^ := $E9;  // long jmp opcode
  Inc(p);
  PDWord(p)^ := DWORD(NewProc) - DWORD(p) - 4;  // address to jump to, relative to EIP

  // Finally, protect that memory again now that we are finished with it
  VirtualProtect(pBase, 5, oldProtect, oldProtect);
end;

function GetUStrCatAddr: Pointer; assembler;
asm
  lea  eax,[email protected]
end;

initialization
  MonkeyPatch(GetUStrCatAddr, @_UStrCatMonkey);
end.

This solution does give me the heebie jeebies, because we are patching the symptoms of the problem as we’ve seen them arise, without being able to either understand or address the root cause within the compiler. It’s not really possible to guarantee that there won’t be some other code path that causes this solution to come unstuck without really digging deep into the compiler’s code generation.

As noted, this problem appears to be resolved in Delphi XE5 or possibly earlier; however it is unclear if the root cause of the problem has been addressed, or we just got lucky. The issue has been reported as RSP-10255.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.