Category Archives: Computing

My Disordered Rebuttal to “AngularJs Performance in Large Applications”

After reading Abraham Polishchuk’s article AngularJS Performance in Large Applications, I wanted to dig a bit deeper on his suggestions before I took any of them on board. My basic concern was many of his suggestions seemed focused around technology-specific performance micro-optimisations. In today’s browser world, optimising around specific technologies (i.e. browsers and browser versions) is an expensive task with a limited life and usefulness: both improvements in the Javascript engines and differences in browser implementations mean that these fine-grained optimisations should really be limited to very specific performance critical situations.

Conversely, I don’t think we can expect Angular’s performance to improve in the same way as browser engines have. While Angular has undergone significant iterative performance improvements in the 1.x series, it is clear from the massive redesign of version 2.0 that most future application performance gains will only be won by rewriting significant chunks of your own code. Be aware!

Understanding computational complexity is crucial for web developers, even though with Angular it is all Javascript and browser and cloud and magic. You still need that software engineering education.

Onto the article.

1-2 Introduction, Tools of the Trade

No arguments here. Helpful.

3 Software Performance


4.1 Loops

This advice, to move function calls out of loops, really depends on what the function you are calling is. Now, clearly, it’s sensible to move calls out of a loop if you can – that’s a normal O(n) to O(1) optimisation. And Objects.keys, as shown in the original article, is very heavy function, so that’d be a good one to avoid.

But don’t take this advice too far. The actual cost of the function call itself is minimal ( In general, inlining code to avoid a function call is not advisable: it results in less maintainable code for a minimal performance gain.

4.2 DOM access

While modifications to the DOM should be approached carefully, the reality is a web application is all about modifying the DOM, whether directly, or indirectly. It cannot be avoided! Applying inline styles (as opposed to using CSS selectors predefined in stylesheets?) vary significantly depending on both the styles being set and the browser. It’s certainly not a hard-and-fast rule, and not really a useful one. In the example, I compare background color (which should not force a reflow), and font-size (which would): ( The results vary dramatically across browsers.

4.3 Variable Scope and Garbage Collection

No arguments here. In fact I would go further and say that this is the single biggest performance concern, both in terms of CPU and resource usage, in Angular. In my limited experience, anyway. It’s very easy to leak closures without realising.

4.4 Arrays and Objects

Yes. Well, somewhat. As Gregory Jacobs commented, there is no significant difference between single-type and multi-type arrays. The differences come in what you are doing with the members of that array, and again browsers vary.

I would again urge you to avoid implementation-specific optimisations. Designing an application to minimize the number of properties in an object just because today’s implementation of V8 has a special internal representation of small objects is not good advice. Design your objects according to your application’s requirements! This is a good example of a premature optimization antipattern.

Finally, as Wills Bithrey commented, Array.delete isn’t really slow.

5.1 Scopes and the Digest Cycle

This is a clear description of Angular scopes and the digest cycle. Good stuff. Abraham does a good job of unpacking the ‘magic’ of Angular.

6.1. Large Objects and Server Calls

Ok, so in my app I return full rows of data, and there are a few columns I don’t *currently* use in that data. I measured the performance impact on my application, and the cost of keeping those columns was insignificant: I was actually unable measure any difference. Again, this is a premature optimization antipattern. Your wins here will ultimately not be from excluding columns from your data but from making sure your data is normalized appropriately. This is about good design, rather than performance-constrained design.

Of course, there are plenty of other reasons to minimize your data across the wire. But remember that a custom serializer for each database object is another function to test, and another failure point. Measure the cost and the benefit.

6.2 Watching Functions

Yes. Never is a little too strong for me, but yeah, in general, avoid binding to functions.

6.3 Watching Objects

Yes, in general, deep watching of objects does introduce performance concerns. But I do not agree that this is a terrible idea. The alternative he gives (“relying on services and object references to propagate object changes between scopes”) gets pretty complicated and introduces maintenance and reliability concerns. I would approach this point as potential low hanging fruit for optimisation.

7.1 Long Lists


7.2 Filters

As DJ commented, filters don’t work by hiding elements by CSS. Filters, as used in ng-repeat, return a transform of the array, which may be what Abraham meant?

7.3 Updating an ng-repeat

Pretty much. I would add that for custom syncing to work, you still need a unique key, just as you do for track by. If you are using Angular 1.3, there’s no benefit to the custom sync approach. Abraham has detailed the maintenance cost of custom syncing.

8. Rendering Problems

ng-if and ng-show are both useful tools. Choose your weapons wisely.

9.1 Bindings


9.2 $digest() and $apply()

Yes, if you must. This is a great way to introduce inconsistencies in your application which can be very hard to debug!

9.3 $watch()

I really disagree with this advice. scope.$watch is a very practical way of separating concerns. I don’t think it’s indicative of bad architecture, quite the opposite in fact! While trying to find the discussions that Abraham refers to (but sadly doesn’t link to), it seemed that most of the alternatives given were in fact in themselves bad architecture. For example, Ben Lesh suggested (although he has since relaxed his opinion) using an ng-change on an input field instead of a watcher on the target variable. Why is that bad? From an architectural point of view, that means each place in your code that you change that variable, you have to remember to make that function call there as well. This is antithetical to the MVC pattern and seriously WET.

9.4 $on, $broadcast, and $emit

Apart from the advice to unbind $on(‘$destroy’) which I don’t think is correct, yes, being aware of the performance impact of events is important in an event-driven system. But that doesn’t mean don’t use them: events are a weapon to use wisely. Seeing a pattern here?

9.5 $destroy

Yes. Apart from the advice to “explicitly call your $on(‘$destroy’)” — I’m not sure what this means.

10.1 Isolate Scope and Transclusion

Only one quibble here: isolate scopes or transclusions can be faster than occupying the parent scope, because a tidy directive can use $apply to just update its own isolated scope, and avoid the digest of the entire scope tree. Choose your tools wisely.

10.2 The compile cycle

Basically, yes.

11 DOM Event Problems

Yes, addEventListener is more efficient, but so is not using Angular in the first place! This results in a significant code increase and again you the benefit of Angular in doing so. Going back to raw DOM is always a trade-off. In the majority of cases, the raw DOM event model is a whole lot of additional work for little gain.

12 Summary

In summary, I really think this post is about micro-optimisations that in many cases will not bring you the performance benefits you are looking for. Abraham’s summary suggests avoiding many of the most useful tools in Angular. If you have to roll your own framework code to avoid ng-repeat, or ng-click, you have already lost.

Have I got the wrong end of the stick?

How many TLDs is too many?

So I got my usual daily email from $registrar today, telling me that my world is going to change and I just have to, have to, buy a new domain name from them for the today’s brave new TLD. Today’s must-have TLD is .website, and yesterday’s was probably .ninja. I’m offended on behalf of Samurai, because I wasn’t offered a .samurai domain.

Today’s must-have TLD is .website.

I enclose below a snippet from the email. I think it speaks for itself:


A morbid fascination caused me to click the link provided. I was given a list of 236 different TLDs, ranging in price from $8.98 for .uk (which, by the way, I can’t actually buy), all the way through to a princely $3059.99 for .healthcare.  I was surprised that .dental was so affordable, at a mere $59.99.

Here’s the list I was offered (click for the gory detail):


I have a few keyman.* domains already, purchased over the years before we managed to acquire our blue label  It’d be nice to fill out the collection. So how much for the full set? Well, the full set of “New Domains” offered by one particular registrar, anyway. Today only, the full set will cost just $26,761.45. That’s doesn’t include most of those two letter country domains, .la and .io and .tv.

Today only, the full set will cost just $26,761.45.

My view is that every TLD issued now increases the value of  I can’t see any way that the average small company is going to be blowing $25K a year on maintaining a set of worthless domains, just to prevent squatters or even to maintain a registered trademark. Some very large companies might find it worthwhile to register, e.g. But me? Nup. I’m not renewing some of my unused lower value domains, and you’re welcome to them.

The gold rush is over people.

IE11, Windbg, JavaScript = joy

I was trying to debug a web application today, which is running in an Internet Explorer MSHTML window embedded in a thick client application. Weirdly, the app would fail, silently, without any script errors, on the sixth refresh — pressing F5 six times in a row would crash it each and every time.  Ctrl+F5 or F5, either would do it.

I was going slightly mad trying to trace this, with no obvious solutions. Finally I loaded the process up in Windbg, not expecting much, and found that three (handled) C++ exceptions were thrown for each of the first 6 loads (initial load, + 5 refreshes):

(958.17ac): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)
(958.17ac): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)
(958.17ac): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)

However, on the sixth refresh, this exception was happening four times:

(958.17ac): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)
(958.17ac): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)
(958.17ac): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)
(958.17ac): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)

This gave me something to look at! At the very least there was an observable difference between the refreshes within the debugger. A little more spelunking revealed that the very last exception thrown was the relevant one, and it returned the following trace (snipped):

(958.17ac): C++ EH exception - code e06d7363 (first chance)
ChildEBP RetAddr  
001875e8 75d3359c KERNELBASE!RaiseException+0x58
00187620 72ba1df2 msvcrt!_CxxThrowException+0x48
00187664 72d659cb jscript9!Js::JavascriptExceptionOperators::ThrowExceptionObjectInternal+0xb4
0018767c 72ba1cda jscript9!Js::JavascriptExceptionOperators::ThrowExceptionObject+0x15
001876a8 72bb5175 jscript9!Js::JavascriptExceptionOperators::Throw+0x6e
001876f4 6e9acd03 jscript9!CJavascriptOperations::ThrowException+0x9c
0018771c 6f3029f5 MSHTML!CFastDOM::ThrowDOMError+0x70
00187750 72b68e9d MSHTML!CFastDOM::CWebSocket::DefaultEntryPoint+0xe2
001877b8 72cff6a2 jscript9!Js::JavascriptExternalFunction::ExternalFunctionThunk+0x165
00187810 72bb849c jscript9!Js::JavascriptFunction::CallAsConstructor+0xc7
00187830 72bb8537 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::NewScObject_Helper+0x39
0018784c 72bb858c jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::ProfiledNewScObject_Helper+0x53
0018786c 72bb855e jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::OP_NewScObject_Impl<Js::OpLayoutCallI_OneByte,1>+0x24
00187ba8 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x3c44
00187dbc 132f1ae1 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
WARNING: Frame IP not in any known module. Following frames may be wrong.
00187dc8 72c372dd 0x132f1ae1
00187ed0 138be456 jscript9!Js::JavascriptFunction::EntryApply+0x265
00187f38 72b6669e 0x138be456
00188288 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
001883bc 132f0681 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
001883c8 72b6669e 0x132f0681
00188718 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
0018887c 132f1b41 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
00188888 72b6669e 0x132f1b41
00188bd8 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
00188d1c 132f1c21 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
00188d28 72bb7642 0x132f1c21
00189080 72bd501f jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x2175
001890b8 72bd507e jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::OP_TryCatch+0x49
001893f8 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x4e84
00189594 132f0081 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
00189624 72d0134c 0x132f0081
00189650 72bf3de5 jscript9!Js::JavascriptOperators::GetProperty_Internal<0>+0x48
00189678 72b677a7 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::OP_ProfiledLoopBodyStart<0,1>+0xa2
001899b8 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x24f7
00189b34 132f0089 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
00189b40 72b6669e 0x132f0089
00189e98 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
0018a004 132f0099 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018a010 72b6669e 0x132f0099
0018a368 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
0018a4bc 132f1c69 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018a4c8 72b6669e 0x132f1c69
0018a818 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
0018a95c 132f1c71 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018a968 72b6669e 0x132f1c71
0018acb8 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
0018ade4 132f1fb1 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018adf0 72c372dd 0x132f1fb1
0018ae90 72b60685 jscript9!Js::JavascriptFunction::EntryApply+0x265
0018aee0 72bd4fcc jscript9!Js::JavascriptFunction::CallFunction<1>+0x88
0018b220 72bd501f jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x442e
0018b258 72bd507e jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::OP_TryCatch+0x49
0018b598 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x4e84
0018b71c 132f1ed9 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018b728 72b6669e 0x132f1ed9
0018ba78 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
0018bbac 132f1ca1 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018bbb8 72bb7642 0x132f1ca1
0018bf00 72bd501f jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x2175
0018bf38 72bd507e jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::OP_TryCatch+0x49
0018c278 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x4e84
0018c3ac 132f1e21 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018c3b8 72bb7642 0x132f1e21
0018c700 72bd501f jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x2175
0018c738 72bd507e jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::OP_TryCatch+0x49
0018ca78 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x4e84
0018cbb4 132f1e21 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018cbc0 72b6669e 0x132f1e21
0018cf08 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
0018d03c 132f1e51 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018d048 72b6669e 0x132f1e51
0018d398 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
0018d4bc 132f0341 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018d4c8 72bb7642 0x132f0341
0018d810 72bd501f jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x2175
0018d848 72bd507e jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::OP_TryCatch+0x49
0018db88 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x4e84
0018dd44 132f1f99 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018dd50 72b60685 0x132f1f99
0018dd98 72bd4fcc jscript9!Js::JavascriptFunction::CallFunction<1>+0x88
0018e0d8 72bd501f jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x442e
0018e110 72bd507e jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::OP_TryCatch+0x49
0018e450 72c5bfce jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x4e84
0018e488 72c5bf0f jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::OP_TryFinally+0xb1
0018e7c8 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x68eb
0018e8f4 132f0351 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018e900 72b6669e 0x132f0351
0018ec48 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0xbd7
0018ed94 132f1cf9 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018eda0 72b66ce9 0x132f1cf9
0018f0f8 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x1cd7
0018f264 132f1d01 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018f270 72b66ce9 0x132f1d01
0018f5c8 72b66548 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x1cd7
0018f70c 132f1d49 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
0018f718 72b60685 0x132f1d49
0018f760 72b6100e jscript9!Js::JavascriptFunction::CallFunction<1>+0x88
0018f7cc 72b60f60 jscript9!Js::JavascriptFunction::CallRootFunction+0x93
0018f814 72b60ee7 jscript9!ScriptSite::CallRootFunction+0x42
0018f83c 72b6993c jscript9!ScriptSite::Execute+0x6c
0018f898 72b69878 jscript9!ScriptEngineBase::ExecuteInternal<0>+0xbb
0018f8b0 6eaab78f jscript9!ScriptEngineBase::Execute+0x1c
0018f964 6eaab67c MSHTML!CListenerDispatch::InvokeVar+0x102
0018f990 6eaab21e MSHTML!CListenerDispatch::Invoke+0x61
0018fa28 6eaab385 MSHTML!CEventMgr::_InvokeListeners+0x1a2
0018fb98 6e8a98bb MSHTML!CEventMgr::Dispatch+0x35a
0018fbc0 6e92d0c0 MSHTML!CEventMgr::DispatchEvent+0x8c
0018fd18 6e92da30 MSHTML!CXMLHttpRequest::Fire_onreadystatechange+0x8b
0018fd2c 6e9343ea MSHTML!CXMLHttpRequest::DeferredFire_onreadystatechange+0x52
0018fd5c 6e8a9472 MSHTML!CXMLHttpRequest::DeferredFire_progressEvent+0x10
0018fdac 773f62fa MSHTML!GlobalWndProc+0x1cd
0018fdd8 773f6d3a USER32!InternalCallWinProc+0x23
0018fe50 773f77c4 USER32!UserCallWinProcCheckWow+0x109
0018feb0 773f788a USER32!DispatchMessageWorker+0x3bc

So now I knew that somewhere deep in my Javascript code there was something happening that was bad. Okay… I guess that helps, maybe?

But then, after some more googling, I discovered the following blog post, published a mere 9 days ago: Finally… JavaScript source line info in a dump. Magic! (In fact, I’m just writing this blog post for my future self, so I remember where to find this info in the future.)

After following the specific incantations outlined within that post, I was able to get the exact line of Javascript that was causing my weird error. All of a sudden, things made sense.

0:000> k
ChildEBP RetAddr  
00186520 76bd22b4 KERNELBASE!RaiseException+0x48
00186558 5900775d msvcrt!_CxxThrowException+0x59
00186588 590076a3 jscript9!Js::JavascriptExceptionOperators::ThrowExceptionObjectInternal+0xb7
001865b8 5901503d jscript9!Js::JavascriptExceptionOperators::Throw+0x77
00186604 6365e79b jscript9!CJavascriptOperations::ThrowException+0x9c
0018662c 63e609aa mshtml!CFastDOM::ThrowDOMError+0x70
00186660 58f1f9a3 mshtml!CFastDOM::CWebSocket::DefaultEntryPoint+0xe2
001866c8 58f29994 jscript9!Js::JavascriptExternalFunction::ExternalFunctionThunk+0x165
00186724 58f2988c jscript9!Js::JavascriptFunction::CallAsConstructor+0xc7
00186744 58f29a4a jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::NewScObject_Helper+0x39
00186760 58f29a7a jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::ProfiledNewScObject_Helper+0x53
00186780 58f29aa9 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::OP_NewScObject_Impl<Js::OpLayoutCallI_OneByte,1>+0x24
00186b58 58f26510 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x402b
00186d6c 14ea1ae1 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
WARNING: Frame IP not in any known module. Following frames may be wrong.
00186d78 58faa407 js!Anonymous function [http://marcdev2010:4131/app/main/main-controller.js @ 251,7]
00186e70 15511455 jscript9!Js::JavascriptFunction::EntryApply+0x267
00186ed8 58f268e6 js!d [http://marcdev2010:4131/lib/angular/angular.min.js @ 34,479]
001872c8 58f26510 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x899
001873f4 14ea0681 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
00187400 58f268e6 js!instantiate [http://marcdev2010:4131/lib/angular/angular.min.js @ 35,101]
001877e8 58f26510 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x899
00187944 14ea1b41 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8
00187950 58f268e6 js!Anonymous function [http://marcdev2010:4131/lib/angular/angular.min.js @ 67,280]
00187d38 58f26510 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::Process+0x899
00187e74 14ea1c21 jscript9!Js::InterpreterStackFrame::InterpreterThunk<1>+0x1e8

When I looked at the line in question, line 251 of main-controller.js, I found:

// TODO: We need to handle the web socket connection going down -- it really should be wrappered
//  try {
      $scope.watcher = new WebSocket("ws://""/");
//  } catch(e) {
//    $scope.watcher = null;
//  }
    $scope.$on('$destroy', function() {
      if($scope.watcher) {
        $scope.watcher = null;

It turns out that if I press F5, or call browser.navigate from the container app, the $destroy event was never called, and what’s worse, MSHTML wasn’t shutting down the web socket, either.  And by default, Internet Explorer has a maximum of six concurrent WebSocket connections. So six page loads and we’re done. The connection error is not triggering a script error in the MSHTML host, sadly, which is why it was so hard to track down.

Yeah, if I had already written the error handling for the WebSocket connection in the JavaScript code, this issue wouldn’t have been so hard to trace. But at least I’ve learned a useful new debugging technique!

Speculation and further investigation:

  • I’m still working on why the web socket is staying open between page loads when embedded.  It’s not straightforward, and while onbeforeunload is a workaround that, well, works, I hate workarounds when I don’t have a clear answer as to why they are needed.
  • It is possible that there is a circular reference leak or similar, but I did kinda think MS had sorted most of those with recent releases of IE.
  • This problem is only reproducible within the MSHTML embedded browser, and not within Internet Explorer itself. Changing $scope.watcher to window.watcher made no difference.
  • TWebBrowser (Delphi) and TEmbeddedWB (Delphi) both exhibited the same symptoms.
  • A far simpler document with a web socket call did not cause the problem.

Updated a few minutes later:

Yes, I have found the cause. It’s a classic Internet Explorer leak: a function within a closure that references the DOM. Simplified, it looks something like:

  window.addEventListener( "load", function(event) {
    var aa = document.getElementById('aa');
    var watcher = new WebSocket("ws://""/");
    watcher.onmessage = function() {
      aa.innerHTML = 'message received';
    aa.innerHTML = 'WebSocket started';
  }, false);

This will persist the connection between  page loads, and quickly eat up your available WebSocket connections.  But it still only happens in the embedded web browser. Why that is, I am still exploring.

Updated 30 Nov 2015:

The reason this happens only in the embedded web browser is that by default, the embedded web browser runs in an emulation mode for IE7. Even with the X-UA-Compatible meta tag, you still need to add your executable to the FEATURE_BROWSER_EMULATION registry key.

Cursor Keys Have Not Improved

I’m a keyboard guy. And I think keyboards suck. In fact, I wrote about this before

I found two new ugly specimens for today’s little rant, and your perusal. Both these keyboards have a reasonably traditional layout, but both fail, for different reasons. These two keyboards were in our conference room.

Microsoft Wireless 800

What’s wrong with this?

  1. It has no gaps between the different parts of the keyboard. Muscle memory fail.
  2. It has a bizarre scooped out shape, not really visible in the photo, which seems to encourage pressing the wrong row of keys.
  3. It has no gaps. This is so bad that it bears repeating. Without gaps, you have to look for the key because you can’t feel for it. Every time.

I thought I was the only one who really hated this keyboard with a passion, but enough other people complained about it that we replaced it with a Dell keyboard. I don’t know what has happened to the Microsoft keyboard. It’s entirely possible someone burned it.

Dell Latest

So this one, at first glance, improves on the Microsoft keyboard by reintroducing that classic design feature: white space, or black space. Just space. Y’know, gaps between different parts of the keyboard. Space is not entirely at a premium on our conference room table. But:

  1. The keys are modern funky flat keys with an unsatisfying deadness to them.
  2. The wrong size! Little tiny navigation keys for big fingers.
  3. And the media keys are encroaching on the navigation key space.
  4. What is the Clear key for? And what have you done with Num Lock? And Scroll Lock? And Pause/Break?
  5. I have nothing against the moon, but why do we need a moon key on our keyboard?

These things cost us time and productivity. It may seem minor, but moving between keyboards has become a constant frustration. I wish we as an industry could do better.

Everything you (thought you) knew about Internet password security is wrong

Time and time again, we see calls from security experts for complex passwords.   Make sure your password includes lower case letters, upper case letters (how xenoglossophobic!), numerals, punctuation, star signs, and emoji.  It must be no less than 23 characters long and not use the same character twice.  Change your password every 60 days, every 30 days, every half hour.  Don’t use the same password again this year, or next year, or for the next 6 galactic years.  Never write your password down.  Especially not on a post-it on your monitor.  Or under your keyboard.

The Golden Password Rules

And it’s all wrong.  There are just two rules you need to remember, as an Internet password user:

  1. Never use the same password in two places.  Like, if you have a Yahoo account and a Google account, don’t let them share the same password.  They’d be offended if they knew you did anyway.
  2. Make sure your password isn’t “guessable”, like your pet’s name, or your middle name.  Or anyone’s middle name.  Or “password”.  Or anything like that.  But “correct horse battery staple” is probably ok, or it was until xkcd published that cartoon.

It’s all wrong because all that complexity jazz is just part of an arms race in the brute force or dictionary attack password cracking game.

Say what? So a brute force attack is, in its simplest form, a computer — or hundreds of computers — trying everything single password combination they can think of, against your puny little password. And trust me when I say a computer can think of more passwords than you can. Have you ever played Scrabble against a computer?

Brute force attacks on Internet passwords are only effective on well designed sites when that site has already been compromised.  At which point who cares if they know your password to that site (because rule 1, remember): they also know everything else that site has recorded about you.  And anyway you can just change that password.  No problem (for you; the site owners have a big problem).

Now, if you are unlucky enough to be targeted, then complex passwords are not going to save you, because the attackers will find another way to get your data without needing to brute force your Google Apps password.  We’ve seen this demonstrated time and time again.  And if you are not being targeted, then you can only be a victim of random, drive-by style password attacks.  And if you followed rule 2, then random, drive-by style password attacks still won’t get you, because the site owner has followed basic security principles to prevent this.  And if the site owner has not followed basic security principles, then you are stuffed anyway, and password complexity still doesn’t matter.

In fact, complex passwords and cycling regimes actually hurt password security.  The first thing that happens is that users, forced to change passwords regularly, can no longer remember any passwords.  So they start to use easier to guess passwords.  And eventually, their passwords all end up being some variation of “password123!”.

The Bearers of Responsibility

The people who really have to do the hard yards are the security experts, software developers, and the site owners.  They are the keepers of the password databases and bear a heavy burden for the rest of us.  Some suggestions, by no means comprehensive, for this to-be-pitied crew:

  1. Thwart dictionary attacks on Internet-facing password entry.  That is, throttle connection attempts, delay for 15 seconds after 10 attempts, require 2nd level authentication after failed attempts, that kind of thing.  These solutions are well documented.
  2. Control access to your password database (duh).  Remember, in the good ol’ days of Unix, password were stored in /etc/passwd, which was world readable and so the enterprising young hacker could just copy the file and try and crack it in their own good time elsewhere.  So keep other people’s dirty paws off your (hashed) password database.
  3. Don’t ever display passwords in plain text.  No “here is your password” emails.  Not even for registration.  That has to be a one time token.  Your password database is hashed, right?  Not ROT13?
  4. Notify a user if someone tries to access their account multiple times.  Give them the power to fret and stress.
  5. If your site gets hacked, tell your users as soon as you possibly can, and reset your password database.  Mind you, they’ll just have to change their password for your site because they’ve been following rule 1 above, right?  Oh, and don’t be too ashamed to tell anyone.  It happens to all the best site owners and there’s nothing worse than covering it up.

The Flaw in My Rant

Still, my rant has a problem.  It’s to do with Rule 1:  A separate password for every site.  But just how many sites do I have accounts for?  Right now?  402 sites.


How do I manage that?  How can I remember passwords for 402 sites?  I can’t!  So I put them into a database, of course.  Managed by a password app such as KeePass or 1Password or Password Safe. Ironically, as soon as I use a password manager, I no longer have to make up passwords, and they actually end up being random strings of letters, numbers and symbols. Which keeps those old-fashioned password nazis happy too.

Personally, I keep a few high-value passwords out of the password database (think Internet Banking) and memorise them instead.

Of course, my password safe itself has just a single password to be cracked.  And because I (the naive end user) store this database on my computer, it’s probably easy enough to steal once I click on that dodgy link on that site…  At which point, our black hat password cracker can roll out their full armada of brute force password cracking flying robots to get into my password database.  So perhaps you still need that complex password to secure your password database?

What do you think?

Note: Roger Grimes stole my thunder.

Risks with third party scripts on Internet Banking sites

This morning, Firefox stalled while loading the login page for the ANZ Internet Banking website. Looking at the status bar, I could see that Firefox was attempting to connect to a website, This raised immediate alarm bells, because I didn’t recognise the website address, and it certainly wasn’t an official sub-domain.

ANZ login delay - note the status message at the bottom of the window
ANZ login delay – note the status message at the bottom of the window

The connection eventually started, and the page finished loading — just one of those little glitches loading web pages that everyone encounters all the time, right? But before I entered my ID and password, I decided I wasn’t comfortable to continue without knowing what that website was, and what resources it was providing to the ANZ site.

And here’s where things got a little scary.

It turns out that is a user tracking web site run by marketing firm Omniture, now a part of Adobe.  The ANZ Internet Banking login page is requesting a Javascript script from the server, which currently returns the following tiny piece of code:

if (typeof(mboxFactories) !== 'undefined') {mboxFactories.get('default').get('SiteCatalyst: event', 0).setOffer(new mboxOfferDefault()).loaded();}

The Scare Factor

This script is run within the context of the Internet Banking login page. What can scripts that run within that context do? At worst, a script can be used to watch your login and password and send them (pretty silently) to a malicious host. This interaction may even be undetectable by the bank, and it would be up to you and your computer to be aware of this and block it — a big ask!

At worst, a script can be used to watch your login and password and send them to a malicious host.

The Relief

Now, this particular script is fortunately not malicious! In fact, as the mboxFactories variable actually is undefined on this page, this script does nothing at all. In other words, it’s useless and doesn’t even need to be there!  (It’s defintely possible that the request for the script is being used on the server side to log client statistics, given the comprehensive parameters that are passed in the HTTPS request for the script.)

What are the risks?

So what’s the big deal with running third party script on a website?

The core issue is that scripts from third party sites can be changed at any time, without the knowledge of the ANZ Internet Banking team. In fact, different scripts can be served for different clients — a smart hacker would serve the original script for IP addresses owned by ANZ Bank, and serve a malicious script only to specific targeted clients. There would be no reliable way for the ANZ Internet Banking security team to detect this.

Scripts from third party sites can be changed at any time, without the knowledge of the Internet Banking team.

Another way of looking at this: it’s standard practice in software development to include code developed by other organisations in applications or websites. This is normal, sensible, and in fact unavoidable. The key here is that any code must be vetted and validated by a security team before deployment. If the bank hosts this code on their own servers, this is a straightforward part of the deployment process. When the bank instead references a third party site, this crucial security step is impossible.

Banking websites are among the most targeted sites online, for obvious reasons. I would expect their security policies to be conservative and robust. My research today surprised me.


How could third party scripts go wrong?

First, is not controlled by ANZ Bank.  It’s controlled by a marketing organisation in another country.  We don’t know how much emphasis they place on security. We are required to trust a third party from another country in order to login to our Internet Banking.

This means we need to trust that none of their employees are malicious, that they have strong procedures in place for managing updates to the site, the servers and infastructure, and that their organisation’s aims are coincident with the tight security requirements of Internet Banking. They need to have the same commitment to security that you would expect your bank to have. That’s a big ask for a marketing firm.


The ANZ Internet Banking website is of course encrypted, served via HTTPS, the industry standard method of serving encrypted web pages.

We can tell, just by looking at the address bar, that uses an Extended Validation certificate.

With a little simple detective work, we can also see that serves those pages using the TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA encryption suite, using 256-bit keys.  This is a good strong level of encryption, today.

However, does not measure up. In fact, this site uses 128-bit RC4+SHA encryption and integrity and does not have an Extended Validation certificate. RC4 is not a good choice today, and neither is SHA. This suggests immediately that security is not their top concern, which should then be an immediate concern to us!

ANZ vs Omtrdc Security
ANZ vs Omtrdc Security

I should qualify this a little: Extended Validation certificates are not available for wildcard domains, which is the type of certificate that is using. This is for a good reason: “in order to ensure that EV SSL Certificates are not issued fraudulently or misused after issuance.” It’s worth thinking through that reason and seeing how it applies to this context.

Malicious Actors

So how could a nasty person steal your money?

In theory, if a nasty person managed to hack into the Adobe server, they could simply supply a script to the Internet Banking login page that captures your login details and sends them to a server, somewhere, anywhere, on the Internet. This means that we have to trust (there’s that word again) that the marketing firm will be proactive in updating and patching not only their Internet-facing servers, but their infrastructure behind those servers as well.

If a bad actor has compromised a certificate authority, as has happened several times recently, they can target these third party servers . Together with a DNS cache poisoning or Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack, even security-savvy users will be unlikely to notice fraudulent certificates on the script servers.

heartbleedSecurity flaws like Heartbleed are exacerbated by this setup. Not only do the bank security team have to patch their own servers, they also have to push the third party vendors to patch theirs as a priority.

Protect Yourself

As a user, run security software. That’s an important first step. Security software is regularly refreshed with blacklists of known malicious sites, and this will hopefully minimize any window of opportunity that an untargeted attack may have. I’m not going to recommend any particular brand, because I pretty much hate them all.

If you want to unleash your inner geek and be aware of how sites are using third party script servers, you can use Developer Tools included in your browser — press F12 in Internet Explorer, Chrome or Firefox, and look for the Network tab to see a list of all resources referenced by the site. You may need to press Ctrl+F5 to trigger a ‘hard’ refresh before the list is fully populated.

I’ve shown below the list of resources, filtered for Javascript, for the National Australia Bank Internet Banking site.  You can see two scripts are loaded from one site — again, a market research firm.


Simplistic Advice for Banks

Specifically to mitigate this risk, banks should consider the following:

  • Serve all scripts from your own domain and vet any third party scripts that you serve before deployment.
  • In particular, check third party scripts for back end communication, via AJAX or other channels.
  • Minimize the number of third party scripts anywhere that secure content must be presented.
  • Use the Content-Security-Policy HTTP header to prevent third party scripts on supported browsers (most browsers today support this).

There are of course other mitigations, such as Two Factor Authentication (2FA), which do reduce risk. However, even 2FA should not be considered a silver bullet: it is certainly possible to modify the login page to take over your current login in real time — all the user would see is a message that they’d mistyped their password, and as they login again, the malicious hacker is actively draining money from their account.

A final thought on 2FA: do you really want a hacker to have your banking password, even if they don’t have access to your phone? Why do we have these passwords in the first place?

Browser Developers

I believe that browser vendors could mitigate the situation somewhat by warning users if secure sites reference third party sites for resources, in particular where these secure sites have lower quality protection than the first party site. This protection is already in place where content is requested over HTTP from a HTTPS site, known as mixed content warnings.

There is no value in an Extended Validation certificate if any of the resources requested by the site are served from a site with lower quality encryption! Similarly, if a bank believes that 256-bit AES encryption is needed for their banking website, a browser could easily warn the user that resources are being served with lower quality 128-bit RC4 encryption.

Australian Banks

After this little investigation, I took a quick look at the big four Australian banking sites — ANZ, Commonwealth Bank, National Australia Bank, and Westpac.  Here’s what I found; this is a very high-level overview and contains only information provided by any web browser!

Bank Bank site security # 3rd party scripts Third party sites Third party security
ANZ Bank 256-bit AES (EV certificate) 1 128-bit RC4
NAB 256-bit AES (EV certificate) 2 256-bit AES
Westpac 128-bit AES (EV certificate) None!
Commonwealth Bank 128-bit AES (EV certificate) 9! 128-bit AES 128-bit RC4 128-bit AES 128-bit AES 128-bit AES

Do you see how the * subdomains are used by two different banking sites? In fact, this domain is used by a large number of banking websites. That would make it an attractive target, wouldn’t you think?

I reached out to all 4 banks via Twitter (yeah, I know, I know, “reached out”, “Twitter”, I apologise already), and NAB was the first, and so far only, bank to respond:

Kudos are due to NAB and Westpac — NAB for responding so promptly, and Westpac, for not having the issue in the first place!

Updates (6:10am, 9 Sep 2014), with thanks, in no particular order:

Many thanks to Troy Hunt for suggesting I write this, then tweeting it — and for his continual and tireless work in websec!

Stefano Di Paola mentioned a previous Omniture vulnerability and referenced 3rd party script risks in his blog:

hillbrad⚡ mentioned a W3C project to make validation of sub-resource integrity possible:

Erlend Oftedal reminded me that this is not a new issue and mentioned his blog post from 2009:

Fifty-nine vulnerabilities, or do you feel safe using Windows XP?

In today’s Microsoft Security Bulletin release was a very long list of vulnerabilities fixed in Internet Explorer. A very long list. 59 separate vulnerabilities to be exact. I do believe that is a record.

But I’m not here to talk about the record — I am more interested in the steps Windows XP users will take to mitigate the flaws, because Microsoft are not patching any of these vulnerabilities for Windows XP! Some people I’ve talked to, from individuals up to enterprises, seem to have the idea that they’ll practice “Safe Computing” and be able to continue using Windows XP and avoid paying for an upgrade.

What do I mean by Safe Computing? Y’know, don’t open strange attachments, use an alternate web browser, view emails with images switched off, keep antivirus and malware protection software up to date, remove unused applications, disable unwanted features, firewalls, mail and web proxies, so on and so forth.

So let’s look at what the repercussions are of practicing Safe Computing in light of these disclosures.

The first mitigation you are going to take is, obviously, to stop using Internet Explorer. With this many holes, you are clearly not going to be able to use Internet Explorer at all. This means a loss of functionality, though: those Internet Explorer-optimised sites (I’m looking at you, just about every corporate intranet) often don’t even work with non-IE browsers. So if you have to use IE to view these ‘trusted’ sites, you must ensure you never click on an external link, or you will be exposed again. Doable, but certainly a hassle.

Okay, so you don’t use IE now. You use Firefox, or Chrome. But you’re still in trouble, because it turns out that the very next security bulletin announces that GDI+ and Uniscribe are both vulnerable as well, today. GDI+ is used to display images and render graphics in Windows, and Uniscribe is used by just about every application to draw text onto the screen, including all the major web browsers. The Uniscribe flaw relates to how it processes fonts. The GDI+ flaw relates to a specific metafile image format.

So, disable support for downloadable fonts in your browser, and disable those specific metafile image types in the Windows Registry. Yes, it can be done. Now you’ll be all good, right? You don’t need those fonts, or those rare image types, do you? You can still surf the web okay?

But you’ve lost functionality, which we might not value all that highly, but it’s still a trade-off you’ve had to make.

From today, every security flaw that is announced will force you to trade more functionality for security.

And this is my point. From today, and on into the future, every security flaw that is announced will force you to trade yet more functionality for security. Eventually, you will only be able to use Windows XP offline — it simply will not be possible to safely access Internet resources without your computer and your data being compromised. It’s going to get worse from here, folks. It is well and truly past time to upgrade.

Only 21? Do you feel safe yet?

iOS 8 beta 1 — first bug reports

Like every other iOS developer, I have already downloaded and installed XCode 6 and the first beta 8.0 of iOS onto one of my test iDevices. And, like every other IOS developer, I immediately went to go and test one of my apps on the new build. And, unfortunately, as can be expected with a beta, I found a bug. I have dutifully filed a bug report via Apple’s!

Given that bug reports are private, I have opted to make information public here because I have had many, many of my product users ask me about it: the bug first arose with iOS 7.1 and I had hoped that it had been addressed in 8.0. Most of my users are not technical enough to be able to navigate the interface, so their only recourse is to complain to us!

Bug #1: Custom font profiles fail to register and work correctly after device restart

We have developed a number of custom font profiles for various languages, following the documentation on creating font profiles for iOS 7+ at Each of these profiles exhibits the same problem: after the font profile is installed, the specific language text usually displays in all apps, including Notes, Mail and more. However, as soon as the device is restarted, the font fails to display in any apps. In some cases, residual display of the font continues after the restart, but any edit to the text causes the display to revert to .notdef glyphs or similar.

Amharic text -- square boxes
Amharic text before the font profile is installed — square boxes
Amharic text after the font profile is installed: now readable.  But not for long.

Even before the device is restarted, font display is sometimes inconsistent. For example, if you shutdown mail and restart it, fonts will sometimes display correctly and sometimes incorrectly.

The samples given are using the language Amharic.  The font profile can be installed through my Keyman app, available at

A sample of text in Amharic is ጤና ይስጥልን (U+1324 U+1293 U+0020 U+12ED U+1235 U+1325 U+120D U+1295).  This text displays correctly when the font profile is first installed, in some situations, and always displayed correctly in iOS 7.0.   The issue first arose in iOS 7.1 and has continued into the iOS 8.0 beta.


Bug #2: Touches on fixed elements in Safari are offset vertically

In Safari in iOS 8.0 beta 1, I have found that touching fixed elements often results in a touch which is 200-odd pixels north of the actual location I touch.  No doubt plenty of people will report this one!

Using Delphi attributes to unify source, test and documentation

Updated 28 May 2014: Removed extraneous unit reference from AttributeValidation.pas. Sorry…

What problem was I trying to solve?

Recently, while using the Indy Internet components in Delphi XE2, I was struggling to track the thread contexts in which certain code paths ran, to ensure that resource contention and deadlocks were correctly catered for.

Indy components are reasonably robust, but use a multithreaded model which it turns out is difficult to get 100% correct.  Component callbacks can occur on many different threads:

  • The thread that constructed the component
  • The VCL thread
  • The server listener thread
  • The connection’s thread
  • Some, e.g. exceptions, can occur on any thread

Disentangling this, especially when in conjunction with third party solutions that are based on Indy and may add several layers of indirection, quickly becomes an unenjoyable task.

I started adding thread validation assertions to each function to ensure that I was (a) understanding which thread context the function was actually running in, and (b) to ensure that I didn’t call the function in the wrong context myself.  However, when browsing the code, it was still very difficult to get a big picture view of thread usage.

Introducing attributes

Enter attributes.  Delphi 2010 introduced support for attributes in Win32, and a nice API to query them with extended Run Time Type Information (RTTI).  This is nice, except for one thing: it’s difficult at runtime to find the RTTI associated with the current method.

In this unit, I have tried to tick a number of boxes:

  • Create a simple framework for extending runtime testing of classes with attributes
  • Use attributes to annotate methods, in this case about thread safety, to optimise self-documentation
  • Keep a single, consistent function call in each member method, to test any attributes associated with that method.
  • Sensible preprocessor use to enable and disable both the testing and full RTTI in one place.

One gotcha is that by default, RTTI for Delphi methods is only available for public and published member methods.  This can be changed with the $RTTI compiler directive but you have to remember to do it in each unit!  I have used a unit-based $I include in order to push the correct RTTI settings consistently.

I’ve made use of Delphi’s class helper model to give direct access to any object at compile time.  This is a clean way of injecting this support into all classes which are touched by the RTTI, but does create larger executables.  I believe this to be a worthwhile tradeoff.

Example code

The code sample below demonstrates how to use the attribute tests in a multi-threaded context. In this example, an assertion will be raised soon after cmdDoSomeHardWorkClick is called. Why is this? It happens because the HardWorkCallback function on the main thread is annotated with [MainThread] attribute, but it will be called from TSomeThread‘s thread context, not the main thread.

In order for the program run without an assertion, you could change the annotation of HardWorkCallback to [NotMainThread]. Making this serves as an immediate prompt that you should not be accessing VCL properties, because you are no longer running on the main thread. In fact, unless you can prove that the lifetime of the form will exceed that of TSomeThread, you shouldn’t even be referring to the form. The HardWorkCallback function here violates these principles by referring to the Handle property of TForm. However, because we can show that the form is destroyed after the thread exits, it’s safe to make the callback to the TAttrValForm object itself.

You can download the full source for this project from the link at the bottom of this post in order to compile it and run it yourself.

Exercise: How could you restructure this to make HardWorkCallback thread-safe? There’s more than one way to skin this cat.

unit AttrValSample;




  TSomeThread = class;

  TAttrValForm = class(TForm)
    cmdStartThread: TButton;
    cmdDoSomeHardWork: TButton;
    cmdStopThread: TButton;
    procedure cmdStartThreadClick(Sender: TObject);
    procedure FormDestroy(Sender: TObject);
    procedure cmdStopThreadClick(Sender: TObject);
    procedure cmdDoSomeHardWorkClick(Sender: TObject);
    FThread: TSomeThread;
    [MainThread] procedure HardWorkCallback;

  TSomeThread = class(TThread)
    FOwner: TAttrValForm;
    FEvent: TEvent;
    [NotMainThread] procedure HardWork;
    [NotMainThread] procedure Execute; override;
    [MainThread] constructor Create(AOwner: TAttrValForm);
    [MainThread] destructor Destroy; override;
    [MainThread] procedure DoSomeHardWork;

  AttrValForm: TAttrValForm;


{$R *.dfm}

procedure TAttrValForm.cmdStartThreadClick(Sender: TObject);
  FThread := TSomeThread.Create(Self);

  cmdDoSomeHardWork.Enabled := True;
  cmdStopThread.Enabled := True;
  cmdStartThread.Enabled := False;

procedure TAttrValForm.cmdDoSomeHardWorkClick(Sender: TObject);

procedure TAttrValForm.cmdStopThreadClick(Sender: TObject);
  cmdDoSomeHardWork.Enabled := False;
  cmdStopThread.Enabled := False;
  cmdStartThread.Enabled := True;

procedure TAttrValForm.FormDestroy(Sender: TObject);

procedure TAttrValForm.HardWorkCallback;
  SetWindowText(Handle, 'Hard work done');

{ TSomeThread }

constructor TSomeThread.Create(AOwner: TAttrValForm);
  FEvent := TEvent.Create(nil, False, False, '');
  FOwner := AOwner;
  inherited Create(False);

destructor TSomeThread.Destroy;
  if not Terminated then
  inherited Destroy;

procedure TSomeThread.DoSomeHardWork;

procedure TSomeThread.Execute;
  while not Terminated do
    if FEvent.WaitFor = wrSignaled then
      if not Terminated then

procedure TSomeThread.HardWork;


The file referenced in the uses clause above controls RTTI and debug settings, in one line. This pattern makes it easy to use the unit without forgetting to set the appropriate RTTI flags in one unit.

// Disable the following $DEFINE to remove all validation from the project
// You may want to do this with {$IFDEF DEBUG} ... {$ENDIF}

// Shouldn't need to touch anything below here
{$RTTI EXPLICIT METHODS([vcPrivate,vcProtected,vcPublic,vcPublished])}

// This .inc file is also included from AttributeValidation.pas, so
// don't use it again in that context.

Finally, the AttributeValidation.pas file itself contains the assembly stub to capture the return address for the caller, and the search through the RTTI for the appropriate method to test in each case. This will have a performance cost so should really only be present in Debug builds.

unit AttributeValidation;




  // Base class for all validation attributes
  ValidationAttribute = class(TCustomAttribute)
    function Execute(Method: TRTTIMethod): Boolean; virtual;

  // Will log to the debug console whenever a deprecated
  // function is called
  DeprecatedAttribute = class(ValidationAttribute)
    function Execute(Method: TRTTIMethod): Boolean; override;

  // Base class for all thread-related attributes
  ThreadAttribute = class(ValidationAttribute);

  // This indicates that the procedure can be called from
  // any thread.  No test to pass, just a bare attribute
  ThreadSafeAttribute = class(ThreadAttribute);

  // This indicates that the procedure must only be called
  // in the context of the main thread
  MainThreadAttribute = class(ThreadAttribute)
    function Execute(Method: TRTTIMethod): Boolean; override;

  // This indicates that the procedure must only be called
  // in another thread context.
  NotMainThreadAttribute = class(ThreadAttribute)
    function Execute(Method: TRTTIMethod): Boolean; override;

  TAttributeValidation = class helper for TObject
    procedure IntValidateAttributes(FReturnAddress: UIntPtr);
    procedure ValidateAttributes;




{ TAttributeValidation }

 Function:    TAttributeValidation.ValidateAttributes

 Description: Save the return address to an accessible variable
              on the stack.  We could do this with pure Delphi and
              some pointer jiggery-pokery, but this is cleaner.
procedure TAttributeValidation.ValidateAttributes;
procedure TAttributeValidation.ValidateAttributes;
  push rbp
  sub  rsp, $20
  mov  rbp, rsp
                          // rcx = param 1; will already be pointing to Self.
  mov  rdx, [rbp+$28]     // rdx = param 2; rbp+$28 is return address on stack
  call TAttributeValidation.IntValidateAttributes;

  lea  rsp, [rbp+$20]
  pop  rbp
procedure TAttributeValidation.ValidateAttributes;
                            // eax = Self
  mov edx, dword ptr [esp]  // edx = parameter 1
  call TAttributeValidation.IntValidateAttributes

 Function:    TAttributeValidation.IntValidateAttributes

 Description: Find the closest function to the return address,
              and test the attributes in that function.  Assumes
              that the closest function is the correct one, so
              if RTTI is missing then you'll be in a spot of
procedure TAttributeValidation.IntValidateAttributes(FReturnAddress: UIntPtr);
  FRttiType: TRttiType;
  FClosestRttiMethod, FRttiMethod: TRTTIMethod;
  FAttribute: TCustomAttribute;
  with TRttiContext.Create do
    FRttiType := GetType(ClassType);
    if not Assigned(FRttiType) then Exit;

    FClosestRttiMethod := nil;

    // Find nearest function for the return address
    for FRttiMethod in FRttiType.GetMethods do
      if (UIntPtr(FRttiMethod.CodeAddress) <= FReturnAddress) then
        if not Assigned(FClosestRttiMethod) or
            (UIntPtr(FRttiMethod.CodeAddress) > UIntPtr(FClosestRttiMethod.CodeAddress)) then
          FClosestRttiMethod := FRttiMethod;

    // Check attributes for the function
    if Assigned(FClosestRttiMethod) then
      for FAttribute in FClosestRttiMethod.GetAttributes do
        if FAttribute is ValidationAttribute then
          if not (FAttribute as ValidationAttribute).Execute(FClosestRttiMethod) then
            Assert(False, 'Attribute '+FAttribute.ClassName+' did not validate on '+FClosestRttiMethod.Name);

{ ValidationAttribute }

function ValidationAttribute.Execute(Method: TRTTIMethod): Boolean;
  Result := True;

{ MainThreadAttribute }

function MainThreadAttribute.Execute(Method: TRTTIMethod): Boolean;
  Result := GetCurrentThreadID = MainThreadID;

{ NotMainThreadAttribute }

function NotMainThreadAttribute.Execute(Method: TRTTIMethod): Boolean;
  Result := GetCurrentThreadID <> MainThreadID;

{ DeprecatedAttribute }

function DeprecatedAttribute.Execute(Method: TRTTIMethod): Boolean;
  OutputDebugString(PChar(Method.Name + ' was called.'#13#10));
  Result := True;


There you have it — a “real” use case for attributes in Delphi. The key advantages I see to this approach, as opposed to, say function-level assertions, is that a birds-eye view of your class will help you to understand the preconditions for each member function, and these preconditions can be consistently and simply tested.

Using a class helper makes it easy to inject the additional functionality into every class that is touched by attribute validation, without polluting the class hierarchy. This means that attribute tests can be seamlessly added to existing infrastructure and Delphi child classes such as TForm.

Full source: License: MPL 2.0. YMMV and use at your own risk.

The Beautiful City of Software

A new frenzy grips the architects, the builders, the carpenters, the painters. The buildings must be changed, must grow, now, now, today. And so they scurry, nailing on curlicues and raising floors, tearing down this staircase, putting up this ladder, and at the end of the day they step back, look up, shake hands and agree to do it again tomorrow, now, now!

GHA40226In the midst of the twisted roadways runs the river, and across its waters lies a bridge. Call it London Bridge. Not designed. Just happened. And always growing, this way and that way, a feature here, don’t like that one there any more, should bring this railing up to spec, cries the engineer, whilst beside him the others hammer together the new houses that crowd the bridge’s fragile shoulders, and yet again it crumbles, down into the rushing waters, patched even as it falls, and saved at the last moment by the railing that the engineer brought up to spec. But touch not the railing now, lest the whole bridge collapse. Heedlessly, the crowds continue to cross the bridge.

Nestled amongst the towers of this city is a little house. Built by yours truly, it has gables and stands proudly on its own foundations. No one knows how I mixed the concrete, how I discovered for myself the secret formulas of the masons. For now it stands, mirroring the towering edifices surrounding it, calling for its own moment in the light. Crudely, yet lovingly, its facets are shaped, aping the towers’ gleaming edges.

For none can see the bones of those towers now, save in the dreams, nay horrors, of the men who built them. Carefully, the gleaming panels were draped over, and hid the gross deformities beneath a respectable skin. The towers reach skyward, bastions of the city, and all seek to build their own towers in homage to them.

None can see the bones? I speak falsely. There are those who live beneath the surface of the living, creaking city. They crawl inside the hidden and forgotten ways, and learn its secrets, for good, for evil and for love of learning secrets. Some, graspers, take their knowledge, and shake the towers with it, as the owners rush to protect and rebuild, patching the bones with sticking plasters and casts painted in cheerful colours.

No one notices the bones of my little house. Bones no better than those of the towers, if a little smaller.

In the University, I discover how to build a crystal palace, beautiful, fragile and empty, devoid of purpose. Perfect in every way except one. For it has no doors and doors cannot be added. I cannot take the bones from the palace and put them into my house. The crystal bones resile from my rough-hewn timber tresses. They shatter.

I hear the men building in a frenzy and the monster grips me too. I rush from room to room of my house, desperate for change and fame and wealth, shifting this, nailing that, never noticing the damage I wreak until out of breath I stop and look back, just in time, recoiling as I realise how close I came to losing my soul. I run from my house, shaking off the claws of the monster as it howls impotently at me, you’ll get left behind!

Down in the market, I wander from stall to stall. Buy this paint! Use these magic bones: make your house into a tower! Be noticed! My house must be festooned with gargoyles to protect those who enter from the crawlers beneath the city’s skin! The noise is unsettling, the message now bland and tasteless. The graspers watch me walking through, asking themselves if I have anything of worth.

Beyond the market lies the city hall, where the men of import gather. I spin a tale of the beauty of my house, desperate to be noticed, and how strong its bones, how elegant its gables. One man turns and sees me, offers wealth beyond my dreams. But inside my heart I now know he offers only the chance to take my house, my pride, for himself, and tear it apart and spread the best of its blocks amongst his towers. And so I reject him, and again I flee.

But then I find the man in the corner of the market. He has no charms to sell me. Instead he tells me of those who still secretly live in the city, building houses with pride, each more robust and trustworthy than the last, and though sometimes they look toward the gleaming edifices wistfully, yet they themselves were once crawlers beneath the surface, for the love of learning secrets. These men and women are gathering, slowly, he tells me, into a guild. A guild that will protect and honour and create buildings that last, unlike those on the bridge, crumbling and tumbling even now, unlike the towers, gleaming and perfect and rotten to the core.

This time of growth and pain and foolishness must be endured, but it shall pass. The wise men of the University shall join us, he proclaims, and together we shall build with beauty and strength. Gradually the towers shall each fail and fall and be replaced by virtuous buildings of grace, beauty and strength, built with love and care for those who live inside them.

I ask if I may join their guild, and ungrudgingly he bids me welcome, and willingly I set myself to learn.